Saturday, November 20, 2010

Code Kata Nine: Supermarket Checkout, Part B (Decouple)

   As you may recall, before life (real life, not Conway's) got rather busy, I left you hanging off the cliff of Dave Thomas's Code Kata #9.  I had finished the "just make it work" part.  Now for the "decouple the price rule format" part.

   As Dave (the other Dave) says, there are many ways to do it.  I chose to use the Strategy Pattern.  (If you're not familiar with design patterns, you really need to go read up on them.)

   As you can see in the code below, the piece that gets swapped out is actually very small.  It does nothing but parse the pricing rules.  How they get applied remains the same.

#! /usr/bin/ruby

# Dave Thomas Code Kata #9: Supermarket Checkout
# See http://codekata.pragprog.com/2007/01/kata_nine_back_.html
# Solution by Dave Aronson
# VERSION B: decouple the pricing format.


class CheckOut

  def initialize rules, parser
    @items = {}
    # only really need this in total, but IRL a customer
    # might just want a price-check on something....
    @pricer = Pricer.new rules, parser
  end

  def scan sku
    @items[sku] = 0 if @items[sku].nil?
    @items[sku] += 1
  end

  def total
    tot = 0
    @items.each_pair { |sku, qty| tot += @pricer.price sku, qty }
    tot
  end

end


# separate from CheckOut 'cuz IRL there may be price-check stations
class Pricer

  def initialize rules, parser
    @prices = parser.parse rules
  end

  def price sku, quantity
    qty = quantity
    tot = 0
    while qty > 0 do
      deal_qty, deal_price = find_best_deal sku, qty
      num_deals = qty / deal_qty
      tot += num_deals * deal_price
      qty -= num_deals * deal_qty
    end
    tot
  end

  private

  def find_best_deal sku, qty
    prices = @prices[sku]
    if prices.nil?
      puts "ERROR: NO PRICE FOUND for #{sku}!"
      return nil
    end
    deal = nil
    prices.each_pair do |rule_qty, rule_tot|
      if rule_qty > qty then
        break
      else
        # Inefficient to keep overwriting this,
        # but shouldn't happen too much....
        deal = [rule_qty, rule_tot]
      end
    end
    puts "ERROR: NO PRICE FOUND for #{qty} of #{sku}!" if deal.nil?
    deal
  end

end


# now we get to the heart of the matter:
# different ways to parse prices.
# essentially the strategy pattern.


class CSVPriceParser
  def parse rules
    prices = {}
    rules.each do |line|
      line.chomp!
      cur_sku, qty, tot = line.split ","
      prices[cur_sku] = {} if prices[cur_sku].nil?
      prices[cur_sku][qty.to_i] = tot.to_i
    end
    prices
  end
end


CSV_RULES = [
  "A,1,50",
  "A,3,130",
  "B,1,30",
  "B,2,45",
  "C,1,20",
  "D,1,15",
]


class YAMLPriceParser
  def parse rules
    prices = {}
    cur_sku = ''
    rules.each do |line|
      line.chomp!
      if line[0..0] == "\t"
        qty, tot = line[1..-1].split "\t"  # 1 to ignore tab
        # really should check for cur_sku not being set yet,
        # though that would mean it's an invalid file....
        prices[cur_sku] = {} if prices[cur_sku].nil?
        prices[cur_sku][qty.to_i] = tot.to_i
      else cur_sku = line
      end
    end
    prices
  end
end


YAML_RULES = [
  "A",
  "\t1\t50",
  "\t3\t130",
  "B",
  "\t1\t30",
  "\t2\t45",
  "C",
  "\t1\t20",
  "D",
  "\t1\t15",
]


# TESTS, initially supplied by Dave Thomas,
# but refactored by Dave Aronson
# to support swapping out strategies

require 'test/unit'

class TestPrice < Test::Unit::TestCase

  def helper_test_incremental rules, parser
    co = CheckOut.new rules, parser
    assert_equal 0, co.total
    co.scan "A";  assert_equal( 50, co.total)
    co.scan "B";  assert_equal( 80, co.total)
    co.scan "A";  assert_equal(130, co.total)
    co.scan "A";  assert_equal(160, co.total)
    co.scan "B";  assert_equal(175, co.total)
  end

  def helper_test_totals rules, parser
    assert_equal(  0, price("", rules, parser))
    assert_equal( 50, price("A", rules, parser))
    assert_equal( 80, price("AB", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(115, price("CDBA", rules, parser))

    assert_equal(100, price("AA", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(130, price("AAA", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(180, price("AAAA", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(230, price("AAAAA", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(260, price("AAAAAA", rules, parser))

    assert_equal(160, price("AAAB", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(175, price("AAABB", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(190, price("AAABBD", rules, parser))
    assert_equal(190, price("DABABA", rules, parser))
  end

  def price goods, rules, parser
    co = CheckOut.new rules, parser
    goods.split(//).each { |item| co.scan(item) }
    co.total
  end

  def helper_test rules, parser
    helper_test_incremental rules, parser
    helper_test_totals rules, parser
  end

  def test_rulesets
    helper_test CSV_RULES, CSVPriceParser.new
    helper_test YAML_RULES, YAMLPriceParser.new
  end


end

   As always (just had to continue starting each paragraph with "As"!), it's now your turn.  How would you have designed and/or implemented this differently?  Leave a comment.